Improving adipose tissue (AT) insulin resistance and induce adipocyte browning are key therapeutic aims in the management of obesity associated insulin resistance (IR) and in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Our laboratory has recently identified neuropeptide FF (NPFF) as a pancreatic hormone, which selectively improves IR in the AT and controls AT browning, especially in infancy (J Clin Invest 2017, 127(7):2842-2854). The selective effect on adipose tissue is due to the specific and high level of expression of an NPFF receptor (NPFFR2) by AT macrophages (ATMs). NPFF/NPFFR2 signaling leads to a metabolically healthy ATM quaility in the AT. We have shown that differentiation of AT in infancy is controlled by ATMs, and this protects the infant from obesity (J Clin Invest 2019, 129(6):2485-2499). We also have found that NPFF controls ATM function in infancy. Next, we aim to explore whether NPFF can protect from childhood obesity (J Clin Invest 2019, 129(6):2485-2499). We already have shown the presence of NPFF in adult human pancreatic islets (J Clin Invest 2017, 127(7):2842-2854) and in adult and infant mouse pancreatic islets. Now, we would like to test whether NPFF is expressed in the infant human pancreatic islets. This is important since our data suggest that the endocrine pancreas is the major source of NPFF in the adult human plasma.